1979 Ph.D. in Psychology, University of California, San Diego
"Speech is Specialized, Not Special"
1976 M.A. in Psychology, University of California, San Diego
"Phonemic Restoration: Context Effects and Individual Differences"
Advisor David E. Rumelhart
Core faculty of LNR lab: Don Norman, Dave Rumelhart, and James McCelland
Faculty collaborator: Elissa Newport
1975 B.A. in Psychology, Cornell University
"Yakker II: A Speech Understanding System and its Psychological Basis"
Advisor Gordon Wilcox
Other influential faculty Ulric Neisser, Stephanie Shattuck-Hufnagel, Jack Catlin, and James Farber